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Calculating Leads


Dear Technoid,

A couple of friends and I were checking our reloads with a chronograph to see if the four gauges were shooting close to the same FPS. We noticed some of them were around 115 FPS different.

My question is, at what fps difference in the shells, does it make a difference in the leads for skeet?

I don’t know if I phrased it right, so, if you have a 410 load that shoots 1320, would there be a noticeable difference in your lead if your 20 was shooting 1200 ?

I can’t get a permit to carry a slide rule, so I thought I would ask you.

Thanks a lot,
Don

Dear Don,

First of all, gauge doesn’t matter. All you care about is time to distance. If everything starts out at the same speed #7-1/2s have slightly better time to distance than #9s do because the larger pellet retains energy a tiny bit better. At 20 yards is almost isn’t enough to measure, but at 40 is is.

I don’t have the exact numbers for #9s in the tables, but a #8 started at 1145 fps takes .063 seconds to reach 20 yards. The same #8 at 1255 (110 fps faster) takes .058. Even though you are dealing with slightly higher speeds, it is the difference of .005 seconds that counts.

Let’s say that your target is going about an average 35 mph (a pretty average speed for a skeet target). That is 51.33 feet per second. .005 x 51.33 = .26 feet.

So the difference in lead on a 90 degree crossing 35 mph skeet target (station four) between a load of #8s at 1255 fps mv and one at 1145 fps mv is about three inches. At that distance, using #9s instead of #8s won’t throw the calculations off enough to matter.

Boots off, beer open.

Best regards,

Bruce Buck
Shotgun Report’s Technoid

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Ask the Instructor: Cross Dominance


Source: Ask the Instructor: Cross Dominance

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Rich Cole on the Beretta 694


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Breaking an incomer easier than an outgoing?


Ole Wise Shotgun Wizard,

I am back again and have yet another question and I cannot imagine any better source than you. This is strictly theoretical but what the heck. If a clay is an incomer, would it increase the probability of a break with an 8 as opposed to an outgoing target at a given distance? What I mean to suggest is does the incoming velocity of the clay add to the energy of the impact? I am thinking that an edge on incomer at a given distance might be better served by the size 8 shot. Yes, yes, I know, one needs to shoot closer to the target. I cannot let that interfere with my theories.

Thanks in advance.

Steve

Steve,

Great question. I’m not at all sure that I have the answer, but it would seem to me that the speed of the target should be incorporated into the speed of the shot to determine impact velocity. If so, the speed of impact would be the shot speed, plus or minus the target speed.

If you buy into that, here are the numbers. Let’s say that the average clay target speed is 40 MPH. I’ve seen all sorts of numbers, depending on whether the bird is shot off the arm or just before it hits the ground. If you want to use a different number, help yourself. 40 MPH is about 59 fts.

Let’s use 30 yards distance and #7-1/2 shot as our test. A #7-1/2 shot which starts out at 1200 fps is going 742 fps at 30 yards. If the target is stationary and not changing distance from the gun, that #7-1/2 pellet at 742 fps has 1.56 ft/lb of energy to hit that target with at 30 yards.

But if the target is going away at 40 mph (59 fps) at 30 yards, the #7-1/2 will hit that target at 742 minus 59 fps or the equivalent of 683 fps or approximately 1.34 ft/lb of energy.

If the target is coming towards you at 30 yards and you add the target speed to the shot speed (742 + 59 = 801) you would get approximately 1.85 ft/lb energy.

That’s quite a difference in striking energy, if the theory holds true. If it turns out that the theory doesn’t hold water, just aim harder.

Best regards,
Bruce Buck
Shotgun Report’s Technoid

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Hartmann’s Hints: Shooting in Wind


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